International Journal of Irrigation and Agricultural Development (IJIRAD) <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Journal of Irrigation and Agricultural Development</strong> (IJIRAD) is an online double blind peer review international journal dedicated to the advancements in irrigation engineering and agriculture development throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, students, academics and engineers all over the world to share, promote, and discuss various new and emerging issues and developments in different areas of irrigated agriculture and the agricultural sciences. IJIRAD publishes accepted original papers twice a year (June &amp; December)</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">All articles have to be original research, reviews and short communications that have not been published elsewhere or are being considered for publication in other journals.</p> International Journal of Irrigation and Agricultural Development [IJIRAD] en-US International Journal of Irrigation and Agricultural Development (IJIRAD) 2616-1508 Small Scale Irrigation in Ghana: Challenges and Prospects in the Face of Climate Variability <p><em>Smallholder or informal or small scale irrigation is one of the three broad categories into which irrigation is put in Ghana. Faced with climate change and variability resulting in extreme events, irrigation serves as insurance against crop failure and permits all-year-round production. The study was carried out to underscore the challenges and prospects of small scale irrigation in the face of climate variability in Ghana and to propose the way forward. The key source of data for this study was secondary data which were collected mainly by reviewing published reports, policy documents, articles, online sources and official web sites of relevant state and international institutions. A number of challenges confront small scale irrigation development including high cost of energy, encroachment on irrigation lands, illegal mining activities and lack of technological know-how among others. Small scale irrigation has a promising future owing to renewed collaborative spirit GIDA has with major stakeholders. To forestall encroachment on irrigation lands, we recommend amendment of Irrigation Development Authority Act to empower GIDA to exercise absolute control over irrigation lands. It is also recommended that the Authority collaborates with relevant stakeholders to develop effective programmes for building capacity of contractors involved in development of irrigation infrastructure. To overcome the challenge of high cost of energy, it is recommended that government makes long-term investment into conversion of electric and diesel/petrol powered irrigation pumps to solar powered ones.</em></p> P. Glitse B. V. Nyamadi K. A. Mintah C. Feruta-Benee ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 2 1 Effects of Irrigation Regime on Soil Properties and Yield of Onion at Bontanga Irrigation Scheme of Northern Ghana <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The study evaluated the effect of irrigation regime on soil properties and onion yield at the Bontanga irrigation scheme. Randomised Complete Block Design was used on Red Creole onion variety using four treatments: 117%, 100%, 80% and 60% of the crop water requirement of onion with five replicates. The results indicated that mean bulb weight ranged from 3.167 to 4.213 t/ha with no significant difference observed among the various treatments (P &gt; 0.05). However, the irrigation regime of 117% recorded the highest yield, with the yield decreasing with decrease in water application rate. There were significant differences between the soil moisture content at different weeks after transplanting for the various treatments. There was no significant difference among treatments for soil pH and nitrogen, but there was a decline in soil pH and nitrogen with decrease in water application. There was a significant increase in soil Potassium and Phosphorus contents between initial and after irrigation regimes of 60 and 117%. There was no significant difference among treatments for organic carbon content. After application of the various irrigation treatments, there was a significant increase in soil magnesium and calcium contents with respect to the initial contents of the soil, but with no significant difference among treatments. There was also a significant difference between each treatment and the initial cation exchange capacity. Farmers should adopt the minimum 60% irrigation regime in order to save water, while increasing yield. The study results suggested vegetable farmers could apply only nitrogen fertilizers or organic manure since phosphorus and potassium are available through irrigation.</p> </div> </div> </div> Y. K. Agbemabiese A-G Shaibu V. D. Gbedzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 2 1 Evaluating the Effect of Absolute and Barometric Pressures on Borehole Performance in Tolon and Wa West Districts of Northern Ghana <p><em>Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of Northern Ghana where majority are farmers as its used for many domestic and agricultural activities. The research evaluated the effects of absolute and barometric pressures on water-table fluctuations of boreholes in Wa West and Tolon Districts of Northern Ghana. Pumping tests, absolute and barometric pressures were monitored using non-vented water level sensors for one year, from 2015-2016. The results of the research indicate that, the aquifer of the Kpaligung borehole is of Voltaian province while that of Baleofili is Granitoid intrusions. The yield of the Baleofili borehole is 1.8 m3/h (30 l/min), while that of the Kpaligung borehole yields 1.4 m3/h (23 l/min). Rainfall regime has considerable effects on Kpaligung and Baleofili boreholes` recharge and water-table fluctuation due to the effects of both absolute and barometric pressure throughout the year. The relationship between barometric pressure and water pressure for the Kpaligung borehole shows positive, but weak correlation value (0.2) that is, increase in barometric pressure leads to an increase in water level and vice versa. The Baleofili borehole shows an inverse relationship between barometric pressure and water level pressure with the coefficient of correlation being 0.5. The relationship between the changes in water level of the boreholes with the corresponding change in rainfall amount suggests that the groundwater recharge of the boreholes depends considerably on annual rainfall variation in the study areas considered. </em></p> A-G Shaibu H. Ishikawa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 2 1 Effects of Tillage, Soil Amendment and Weed Management Regime on Performance of Lowland Rice <i>(Oryza sativa L.)</i> in the Guinea Savannah <p class="Default"><em>Field experiment was carried out during the 2015 and 2016 cropping seasons at Integrated Water and Agricultural Development Limited (IWAD) in the Mamprugu Moaduri district of Northern region. The objectives of the study were to evaluate tillage system, soil amendment and weed management regime on the growth and yield of rice under lowland conditions. The experiment was laid out in split-split-plot design in three replications with tillage, soil amendment and weed management which constituted the main-plot, sub-plot and sub-sub-plot factors respectively. Tillage, soil amendment and weed management, each at three levels, were respectively made-up of zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT) and conventional tillage (CT); 2.5 tons/ha organic manure, 2 tons/ha biochar and 250 kg NPK/ha; and hand weeding at 3 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP), pre-emergence herbicide, and post-emergence herbicide. Post-emergence herbicide application supported earliest flower initiation (80-85 days) compared to manual weeding (82-92 days) and pre-emergence herbicides (83-90 days). The combination of zero tillage and pre-emergence herbicide weed management gave the highest number of tillers of 34.3 per hill and maximized grain yield (6661 kg/ha). Longest rice root length was 34 cm in zero tillage with compost amendments and pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Soil carbon stock below 40 cm soil depth was highest in zero tillage </em><em>(0.89% C) compared to minimum tillage (0.65% C) and conventional tillage (0.55 % C). Results gave good indication of best land preparation, soil amendment and weed management practice that could promote sustainable cropping in sandy-loam textured lowland soils.&nbsp; </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> I. Zakaria I. K. Dzomeku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 2 1 Effect of Sawdust and Grass Clippings as Bulking Materials on the Quality of Compost <p><em>The increase in student population has led to a corresponding increase in the generation of waste on the Campus of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Composting of the biodegradable portion of waste is seen as a better option to reduce the volume of waste and manage it at the same time. This study hence aimed to investigate the effect of some bulking materials on the quality of compost after the decomposition of the biodegradable portion of the waste generated. Bin composting was employed for this analysis. Composting was conducted over a 60 -day period at the sewage treatment plant on the KNUST Campus. Wastes comprising of food waste, sawdust, and grass clippings were mixed in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 (v/v) ratio for sawdust/food waste (SSD 1:1, SSD 1:2, SSD 2:1) and grass clipping/food waste (SGC 1:1, SGC 1:2, SGC 2:1). Turning of compost was done manually at three days interval during which the volume was also recorded. Temperatures were taken on daily basis, three times within a day at 8 am, 12 pm and 4 pm respectively. Volume of all bins reduced as percentage organic matter decreased leading to an increase in percentage ash to between 39. % and 64.5 %. Percent organic matter loss was highest in the grass clipping/food waste treatments compared to the sawdust/food waste treatments. By the end of eight weeks of analysis, the grass clipping/food (SGC 1:1, SGC 1:2, and SGC 2:1) waste formulations were seen to decompose faster than the sawdust/food (SSD 1:1, SSD 1:2, and SSD 2:1) waste formulation. The grass clipping/food waste ratios (especially the SGC 2:1) therefore gave better compost in terms of the quality since rate of decomposition was faster compared to the sawdust/food waste.</em>&nbsp;</p> K. Prempeh B. Fei- Baffoe B. W. Lawson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-25 2018-07-25 2 1 Drivers of Farmers’ Relationship Choice in Commodity Supply Chains: The Case of Soybean in Northern Ghana <p>To ensure an efficient marketing with attractive profit margins in supply chains, factors influencing relationship choice between farmers and buyers require critical assessment. Choice of marketing relationship is the bane of most agricultural commodity supply chains in Northern Ghana. &nbsp;The type of relationship agreed between farmers and buyers determines the form of delivery of a commodity. Buyers identified included retailers, itinerant traders and wholesalers. Identified marketing relationship was either on contract or spot buying with access to credit, membership to farmer association, experience and price as drivers of marketing relationship. In terms of marketing relationships, 57% of the farmers’ commodities are based on agreed contract while 43% commodities are without any binding contract. Age, price, access to credit, membership of farmer association, education and farmers’ experience are the factors influencing contracting or otherwise in established commodity supply chain in Northern Ghana. Soybean production and utilization has the potential to draw the youth into agriculture and government and private partners should intervene with the commercialization supply chains with strong contract relationships in the supply chain.&nbsp;</p> O. T. Damba I. Egyir H. Adam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-07 2018-08-07 2 1